Some things you might
want to know in the way of backpacking, budget travel country
specific advice, tips and info for: West Africa - Benin/Togo,
Burkina Faso, Cape
Verde, The Gambia, Ghana,
Mali and Senegal.
You can also see East, Southern and North Africa in other sections.
» It is worth looking, if you have not already, at the example layout to see the guidelines each section of information is based on - or for other travel advice and site home head for www.travelindependent.info. Also recommended is the website of Piers Newberry for his excellent insights and information. Some of which you will find republishing below.
What follows are only basis snap shot summaries. If you have decided these are some of the countries you want to visit and need more planning information then you are strongly recommended to complement what you find here with a planning guide. Trust us it will make life much easier. If you are set on going and need a guidebook or reading material please see a list of recommended guides/books here (go on have a look!). All guides/books can be viewed in more detail and click-through purchased with Amazon in the UK, US or Canada. Plus shopping through the site is a big thank you (if you have been helped out), to see why click here.
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Editorial / author's note:
Travelling for the sake of travelling and seeing as
much of this kaleidoscope of a world we all live in is about all the
reason most of us ever need to travel. Variation is always the
inspiration. It's amazing at just how different (and of course similar)
life is across the globe. It's a great feeling to know this first hand
and at least get a foot on each of the world's major regions. With this
in mind, West Africa with all its mystic, alluring place names and sense
of adventure is somewhere ignored... or perhaps just forgotten. Tucked
away in a corner, way off any round-the-world ticket and just waiting to
be explored. For most English speaking travellers it's way down the
list. Let's be fair it's hot, on the whole comparably expensive
(certainly to fly to) and with few noteworthy attractions. What you'll
read about West Africa - the crime, disease, conflicts, poverty and lack
of infrastructure - might also worry you in a certain measure. Having
noted all this, many are still very much attracted to the region and
what they imagined will be a lot of virgin ground, few travellers and
many of those friendly African smiles encountered so many other places
on this dark continent.
This intro is here because it is felt in the case of West Africa some general impressions needed to be summarised, rather than just 'country-by-country'. Certainly considering how little there is to write from a mainstream traveller's point of view about each country and how reasonably similar most of them are.
As mentioned, many will have feelings of slight trepidation before setting off to West Africa, but most will probably on the whole be looking forwards to going after hearing or reading many second-hand glowing reports. A large proportion of these reports don't perhaps paint a full picture focusing on individual instances or reflection rather than travel in general/reality and this is a useful point to communicate some of the reality without any - for want of a better phrase - 'hardcore smug retrospect backpacker coolness'.
Okay where to start? Firstly, and taking nothing away from the fact everyone should visit this incredible (for many of the wrong reasons) region - French West Africa from a budget independent travel perspective is on the whole not fun, not easy, not cheap and certainly no picnic. Whatever the complications of getting around, basic facilities, lack of tourist infrastructure, etc., anywhere else in the world they are magnified ten fold in French West Africa to a point that experiences under the hot African sun can go beyond enjoyable, particularly if your knowledge of French is not good enough to get the best from the region which is often the people. Add this to some pretty unforgiving weather and you have a real challenge of a trip on your hands and no 'holiday'. A good sense of humour and attitude helps immensely, but at times you'll need at extraordinary sense of humour as routine situations like getting around, sleeping or crossing a border can go way beyond funny.
A great if somewhat circumstantial example, is that when travelling worldwide and socialising with other travellers, stories always get shared or re-told. Tails on funny, dangerous or unbelievable experiences. These are almost always second hand, normally third hand and occasionally you'll recognise them as directly out of the Lonely Planet! When in West Africa you'll have the same conversations with other travellers you'll meet, yet almost all of the stories are told about first hand recent experiences. Stories such as a one day bush taxi journey taking three, being kept for a day incorrectly at an airport in the hope of a bribe, being dumped on the road side at one AM, waiting two hours for a sandy omelette in a restaurant, waiting endlessly for a bush taxi to fill up... the list goes on. It's very much West Africa - for every good there are a thousand complications and when sitting in the midday heat, on a hard bench, covered with flies surrounded by children in an awful state and waiting for those three bush taxi seats to fill up having been there at seven that morning - it makes you think hummm, this is pasted an experience and really not that much fun. But of course it is an experience and whereas these experiences are more frequent and less pleasant than travel in other parts of the world you just need to see it in retrospect and understand they make up as much of a part of travel as seeing any famous monument. It's West Africa - just be prepared, have a healthy budget and don't under estimate the fact you are in the world's poorest region where things are done differently and life is very, very different to the rest of the world - only parts of the Asian Subcontinent even come close, but at least they are fairly well set up for tourists and cheap - French West Africa comparatively speaking is not.
A few notes to keep in mind... French West Africa is constantly referred
to, Ghana on the other hand which is English speaking in
compared to the former French territories is a real joy - but
more about this later. Cameroon (part English speaking), which
is still pending a write-up also comes recommended in many
The real West Africa, the music, age old traditions, dances, mystique are hard to track down and for this reason planning your trip around a festival or at the very least a major market makes a big difference to your impressions. Please note that because of the limited time able to be spent in each country (there are very few if any places to 'hang-out', and not so many places that are worthy of the extreme effort it takes to get there) these summaries are admittedly quite brief. Okay enough said... still want to go? - good for you, now read on for the good bits.
15 'Must Knows for West Africa'
1). Speak French well - Very
few people in the Francophone countries speak English. Now, even
with reasonable French, it can be quite hard to get a bottle of
water! Why because the ennunciation is often not clear, and you
may have to haggle. You will manage with poor French but there
is a big difference between managing and enjoying your trip.
Many thanks to Piers Newberry for allowing this (slightly edited) republishing of advice from his trip through West Africa.
Money and costs: All of the French speaking countries covered in this section - so not Ghana or The Gambia - use the West African CFA (pronounced say-far and not to be confused with the Central African currency of the same name) as their currency. This currency was fixed to the French Franc and now to the Euro making it 'hard'. Thus meaning that when the Euro is strong, so is the CFA. Strong as in you won't get much CFA for your dollar, pound or whatever, compared to say a sometimes undervalued currency like the South Africa Rand. It also means cost wise that coming from South Africa, Asia, Latin America or even some parts of Eastern Europe you are in for a shock. It's not Japan standards, but it's no bargain as parts of Asia can be. Sure market food, locally provided services, a bus ride or basic bed can be very cheap, but probably more than anywhere else in the world, prices will match quality and dirt cheap prices mean very low/basic standards. When things wear you down a little - considering the difficulties of travelling in the region you will probably crave some comfort from time to time - or you can't avoid them, commodities/services/items of an international/western standards such as gasoline, air conditioning, western food or comfortable accommodation are going to be relatively expensive and in many cases on par or not far off with western prices. The case here is poor country doesn't necessary equal cheap travel. Note this is the case in CFA countries, others such as Ghana are still excellent value.
Getting around: There are many forms of overland transport in West Africa, but none more common and unique to this part of the world than the bush taxi or taxi brousse - a form of shared transport in a car. Bush taxis are always private, but rarely does the driver own the vehicle, and are effectively a small bus. Almost without exception a bush taxi will leave when full (or when all seats are sold) not by a timetable. Depending on the popularity of the route this can take half an hour or even several days. If you are early you can choose where you sit, late comers have no choice - sitting in the front is the best and worst is the back (the side with no shade is also pretty bad). If a bush/private taxi looks like it is going to get uncomfortably full or will take ages to fill up with all the required passengers, you can buy extra seats at the same price of one or even charter the whole thing. In some cases you are going to be asked for more money for a big bag. On some occasions when the taxi is taking ages to fill up some passengers will club together to buy remaining seats and get going. If this happens or you personally buy an extra seat, don't expect a discount - time is not money in West Africa. Best get a bush taxi early in the morning or on a market day. There are a few different types of bush taxi in West Africa, most a moving form of torture.
Bush taxis are normally Peugeot 504s (that have been made in Nigeria or driven from France), or at least the main type anyone with any sense/money would take, over mini-buses or pick-ups. The quality of these vehicles ranges from whimsically forlorn to past belief. In fact the state of bush taxis in West Africa will probably be your most entertaining experience each day.
A Peugeot 504 or cent-quatre as they are known have three rows of seats and are designed to take seven plus the driver, but in many countries this is flagrantly flaunted. Mali springs to mind where the driver plus nine is the norm and even worse in Guinea they go for ten plus! Normally the wealthier the country the less people they squeeze in. The quality of the car will affect the comfort, but on the whole even with seven in the car (three in each row and one in the front) long trips are very uncomfortable and the front seat even if shared is the best place. If you worry about safety perhaps just don't go to West Africa, doors won't open, tyres are bald, there is normally a hole in the floor somewhere. Drivers vary, some dangerous, some okay.
Sometimes mini-buses are used as big bush taxis, these are cheaper and sometimes more comfortable, but take longer and are rarer. Much more common are pick-ups (bâchés). With wooden seats, these are so past 2nd class that after a few hours you would rather be walking (you sometimes figure you would get there faster - bâchés are slow and take a lot of time at road blocks). They take about 16 passengers and a lot of luggage. Without beating around the bush: travelling on all the above is pretty unpleasant, but none more so that a bâchés and sometimes they are the only option. Best advice, just remember a bad day travelling is better than a good day at work! (or so they say). Remember you're in Africa, get in to the local humour and as your arse slams onto the hard wooden bench as pick-up hits a huge pot hole, a chicken bites your leg and a bag of millet land on you just think.......
Reading: Set in Nigeria at the turn of the century, anyone heading to West Africa should read (among others), the excellent 'Things Fall Apart' by the late, great Chinua Achebe.
Intro: Two narrow strips of land between Nigeria and Ghana. Togo and Benin get perhaps more than their fair share of visitors due to the fact it's an easy and quick trip across from the ever popular Ghana. Many are attracted to Benin since it is known as the home to Voodoo and both nations have a golden coast line. The main road along the coast is good and you could (even with West African transport) get from Accra to Lagos in one day passing through both. Border crossings are also pretty easy. However, head to the north of both countries and transport is back to normal West African standards and it can take days to cover small distances. By all accounts some interesting national parks (Parc National de la Pendjari for example) await those who do take the time or are on the way to Burkina Faso. Nevertheless most understandably stay close to the coast and see wildlife else where in the regions. With Benin, Voodoo and the World heritage listed palace in Abomey are a major draw card, but don't expect too much. The real interest lies deep down for those who discover it at length or are lucky enough to stumble across a festival. As for Togo the highlight is the scenery in the north, the hills, plateaus and mud-brick houses that dot the landscape near Kara, but you are going to have to have plenty of time and energy to get to see it.
Highlights: Less tourists that Ghana. A real chance to get off the beaten track. The yearly Voodoo festive is quite something. Some of the best national parks in the region and some beautiful hilly country-side. Most note they like the culture of Benin, but the people of Togo. Hiking in the hills, the amazing lack of modernisation in the Kabyé region, voodoo ceremonies or encounters with wildlife, but highlights are thin on the ground or hard to track down. Getting around is not too bad and getting around in Cotonou is a lot of fun on the back of motto taxis.
Lowlights: Not much to see or do (certainly compared to the likes of Ghana). Outside of Nigeria, Benin has some of the worst examples of urban Africa. Not much is to be expected of Abomey (but is quite interesting). The same goes with Route des Esclaves and voodoo in Ouidah. Ganvié the village in the centre of Lake Nokoué is not only touristy, but also expensive and unfriendly (better examples exist in Ghana). Beaches are plentiful, but the sea is dangerous, sand unclean and budget facilities poor (head to Ghana). Places like Aného in Togo do have a certain charm, but need no more than an afternoon to explore.
Food: Some excellent restaurants in Lomé and not bad ones in Cotonou. However, to eat at this standard is not cheap. For quick cheap food there a few options, but nothing too exciting so it seems that it is either market food, something out of a supermarket/bakery or a more expensive meal. Outside of Lomé and Cotonou the choice is more limited and basic, but never as bad as in other parts of West Africa.
Vegetarians: Generally Fine
Hassle and annoyance factor: 6.5/10 - Some hassle, not too bad.
Women alone: Generally fine, keep a guard up as always.
Rating: 6/10 - some interesting possibilities, but compare the people, cost and scope of things to do with Ghana and there is a hard case to be made for any more than a quick look around.
Intro: A name like Burkina Faso (West Africa's darling) and a capital named Ouagadougou (Waga-doo-goo) is enough to attract almost any spirited traveller if they get the chance to visit. However, exotic names (here is another one: Bobo-Dioulasso) might just be all that Burkina Faso has got going for it. Like the rest of the region it is notably very poor, and certainly has none of the big draw cards some of its neighbours have, such as Mali and Ghana. What it does have is a relaxed and organised feel to it, much more than say neighbouring Niger and Mali (and none of the instability), which to be fair most want out of pretty quick. Neither Ouagh or Bobo (the two largest cities and commonly used abbreviations) have much in the way of sights, but walking around is not unpleasant, internet plentiful and most Burkinabé friendly. Burkina Faso does seem to be one of those transit countries (like Zambia, Paraguay, the Baltic's, to name a few) where travellers end up on the way to someplace else or simply for the reason that they liked the sound of it; and it's Ouagh and Bobo that are the main transit towns. It's a day jaunt to either Mali or Ghana from either. Look on a map or flick through your guidebook and apart from Gorom-Gorom in the north and Banfora in the south there's not much else to attract you and with Ghana or Mali calling fleeting through seems like the best idea. It could be argued that considering what these two neighbours have to offer and the fact that getting to either the north or south is going to take a fair amount of effort. Then if you have limited time, feel worn out by bush taxis or want to get elsewhere the advice is probably to keep moving. Those who have the time and energy - head out there and you will discover the gentle nature of the country and a landscape as varied as the people. A trip to Gorom-Gorom can be over-shadowed by the hassle it is to get there and the poverty you find, but get it right and you will feel as if you are in the National Geographic! Something unforgettable. For those who don't have time, just try to break up a journey and stay a night outside of Ouagh or Bobo. Don't expect too much, but remember where you are and that is reward enough in reflection.
Highlights: Gorom-Gorom's Thursday market is quite a way to go, but reasonably interesting and less hassle than the market in Djenne, Mali. A slightly more relaxed and more organised feel than many neighbouring countries.
Lowlights: Transportation to more remote areas, and the fact that there is just not too much to do/see
Visa strategy: A visa is available at the border and at the airport. The visa is not too expensive by comparative standards, but the cost is higher if you pick it up in a regional embassy in advance which is not really necessary - just make sure you have enough cash (currently around US$20 for 7 days) in CFA and two passport photos when you arrive at the border. Officials are normally quite friendly, corruption is more of a problem in other countries. Note if travelling elsewhere in the region BF is covered on the Visa Entente (this visa also covers Togo, Benin, Niger, and the Ivory coast).
Typical tourist trail: Coming from Ghana, Dogon Country, Togo or Benin you will end up in Ouagh. Coming from Mopti or Bamako you will hit Bobo first. Many continue onwards to other countries from there. A few stop in-between Bobo and Ouagh to see the national park and similarly few head to the north and Gorom-Gorom's. The general feeling experienced was those coming from Mali were worn out and wanted a rest and to have a little comfort (there or in Ghana) and those coming from elsewhere were in a hurry to get to Dogon Country and Mali proper.
Costs: Burkina Faso seems cheaper than Mali and Senegal, but still uses the CFA so is a mile off Ghana in terms of value. Everything apart from imported goods are good value. €15-25 per day. If you come from Ghana expect to find Burkina much more expensive.
Money: Travellers cheques (€ or $) will change in most banks at 1% or 2% commission so will cash. Some travellers have reported problems with less known brands of travellers cheques and no matter what brand you have you will have problems without your proof-of-purchase. Best bet is to use ATMs found throughout the country (in larger towns) and get money that way. Stock up on cash in Ouagh and Bobo before heading out into the country where you will struggle to change anything else apart from Euros cash.
Getting around: Buses are pretty reliable and comfortable (yes they have buses! one of the get joys with Burkina is a rest from bush taxis). There are of course still bush taxi and mini buses which you might have to use. There is or was a regular train service into Côte D'Ivoire, but god knows what has happened to this as it transits some pretty 'hot' territory.
Guide book: Basic info in the Lonely Planet / Rough Guide - West Africa
Locals: Generally very warm, friendly (many ethic groups as elsewhere in West Africa).
Other travellers: General Frenchies and peace corp. heading for Mali.
Tourist factor: 3/10
Accommodation: It is pretty easy to find basic accommodation for under CFA10,000 and in Bobo and Ouagh you can get a nice room complete with AC for around CFA15,000.
Communications: Okay internet in Ouagh and Bobo
Food: There is not much variety in the way of food in Burkina, but you can find good supermarkets and good food in Bobo and Ouagh.
Vegetarians: Normally always able to find an option
Hassle and annoyance factor: 3/10 (more in the Sahel, far north)
Women alone: Not really a problem, but it is worth being on your guard
Miss at your peril: Scenery and hiking on [amongst others] Santo Antão - 'Highlight of Independent Travel'
Intro: Okay we admit it Cape Verde does not really
belong here. You will find a chapter for it in most West African
guide books and Senegal is the nearest landmass, but that is as far
as the connection goes. Far from hardcore, heat, hassle and bustle;
Cape Verde is a popular winter sun destination for Europeans. Most
visitors and certainly those on package trips will visit only Sal, a
hot/dry island with a great beach in the Northeast [of the island
chain] with good/cheap flight connections from Europe. Boa Vista,
below Sal which has equally nice beaches (if not nicer) is also
popular. However, like so many locations around the globe the best
is to be found far away from the crowds attracted to white sand.
The best of Cape Verde is to be found on the more rugged and harder to reach islands where the sea and crashing waves gives way to dramatic mountains and volcanoes in which green valleys, friendly locals and relaxed little towns can be found. Due to the size of these islands, topography and few roads the best way to explore is walking (although midday sun is harsh) and with a map available locally possibilities to get off the beaten track and simply explore are endless. The most dramatic and greenest island is Santo Antão (which also attracts the most hikers) is probably the best place to do this. Sao Nicolau is much drier, but sees far fewer tourist and Fogo in the south, set amongst one dramatic volcanic rise, is equally a great place to explore.
The problem is getting to all these islands since ferry connections are limited, flight costs add up and once on an island, transport, hotels and attractions can be limited. If in doubt start with Mindelo (via Sal or Praia) and head to Santo Antão for the bulk of your trip. Don't expect anything less than Eastern European prices and try and have a bit of Portuguese (or at least French) in your vocab to make the most of it.
Highlights: Hiking, mountain biking or chilling on Santo Antão. If you kite or wind surf the possibilities are excellent as are the facilities, but waves and strong wind can make it frustrating to learn/for beginners. Cape Verde is famous for its music, but finding it and authentic performances can be tough.
Lowlights: Cost, it's a much higher standard than mainland Africa and you pay for it. Getting there and around (islands - ferries apart from a few are not practical to connect islands) and on islands, shared (cheap transport) is not always available and sometimes with a long wait (to fill up) when it is. Equally life on a small island can be a little boring.
The jury is out on: The wind. Cape Verde is a breezy place. Great for wind and kite surfing of which there are loads of schools and rental outfits, but after a while being constantly buffed gets on your nerves.
Visa strategy: A visa (paid entry stamp) is available at the airport on arrival - run to get ahead of the queue.
Typical tourist trail: 90% of tourists remain on either Sal or Boa Vista. Of the remaining 10% the majority make Santo Antão or Sao Vicente their main focus
Costs: Sal is by far the most expensive island, other islands cheaper, but food, accommodation and transport all add-up. 40-60Euros per day.
Money: Plentiful ATMs, in more touristy destinations. Euros are widely accepted for payment at approximately the current exchange rate
Getting around: Angleurs (shared mini-buses or pick-ups (pick-ups)) run most routes, but are irregular. Getting to an out of the way beach or trail head will normally mean hiring the whole thing. Your can find car and bike rental on most islands, but often there are not enough things to see or roads to drive to justify the cost of car hire unless you are a big group.
Ferries and flights (inter-island): There are twice daily (morning/evening) dependable ferries between Santo Antão and Sao Vicente. The crossing takes only 1 hour. There is also a service between Praia - Fogo (3hrs 30mins) - Brava (40mins). For the rest and connecting with Sal/Boavista and the other sets of islands you are really depended on flights provided on the whole by the partially government-owned airline TACV - the Cabo Verde Airlines. There are some longer distance ferry, but schedules are weekly or bi-weekly and we struggled to find information on them.
Guide book: Any, not so vital. Good walking maps can be bought locally and there are good tourist information places in major towns, plus locals will be happy to help
Locals: Friendly and open - the more so the more you get away from the nice beaches and onto the lest visited islands
Other travellers: On Sal and Boa Vista, predominately English, German and Italian. On other islands, mainly French and German. Typically older travels with 'backpackers' in the traditional sense uncommon
Language: Portuguese is main language, but French is widely spoken (and English on Sal). A Portuguese phrase-book helps
Tourist factor: Depend on island from 3/10 - 10/10
Accommodation: It is pretty easy to find accommodation. Don't expect hostels or cheap options everywhere. If you are lucky you can find a double for 20Euro, but 30-40Euro (inc. breakfast with in-room bathroom) is more normal. On Sal 50-80Euro is more the norm.
Communications: Wi-Fi in many places, certainly the better places to stay. Every major town has a place to use the internet and make international calls
Food: Decent supermarkets in towns of any size. Food is priced at western standards
Vegetarians: No problem, but fish dominates
Hassle and annoyance factor: 2/10 (more in Sal and Boa Vista, but lightweight and friendly)
Women alone: Not a problem.
Intro: For most Mali is West Africa, a nation three times larger than France, backed by the Sahara, transited by the River Niger, home to the most fascinating sight in the region (Dogon Country) and of course there is Timbuktu. With direct charter flights from France to Bamako and Mopti, Mali is the one place in French West Africa a traveller will want to visit. Dogon country and uniqueness is widely known, its reputation and photogenic images go before it. Images of Djenne's huge mud mosque go before it too, projecting an image of exoticism and Africanness its self. Removed from the West - enough to tempt almost any traveller. You can take a trip on a slow boat down the Niger, mud villages on it's banks, hippos... Timbuktu at the end (lets be fair this is Mali's main draw because on first response EVERYONE will want to have gone to Timbuktu and back). That's the travel brochure version (if there is one), what one expects in the expectation of looking ahead or the nostalgia of looking back to a trip, but the reality is quite different for many reasons.
Where to start other than to say Mali really is not real
fun to travel within and - Dogon country and a vibrant music scene aside
- the only 'wow' will probably be your thoughts on how the
population endures what can seem like such an inhospitable place. This
is of course a personal take, no doubt a few hard-core French speaking
travellers may disagree, but certainly this is the most consistent
opinion of travellers. Why is this then?
Well at the heart of it there are four main issues, all largely endemic to French West Africa, but exaggerated many times in Mali. 1) The country is extremely poor and the traveller infrastructure is very basic, this means a basic lack of good cheap places to eat/sleep or ways to get around. The feeling of adventure you get from travelling with locals or sleeping in very basic hot rooms soon wears off after a few weeks. 2) Malians do vary dramatically through the country, but certainly in tourist areas there is a lot of hassle (Mopti and Timbuktu in particular). This hassle really can get too much at times. 3) The fact that it is quite clearly a desperately poor country (aside from Niger and the Sudan more so than possibly most travellers ever experiences first hand), coupled with the strength of the CFA as a currency means although what you might expect would be cheap travel it can be quite expensive. Transport (private), decent accommodation, imported food (so most decent food) and trekking Dogon country will leave you feeling quite poor. All this on top of seeing 95% of the population living in extreme poverty.
Anything else? To summarise: travellers more than often have expectations way to high of Mali. It's very hard work, relatively crowded, hard to get around, not cheap and more often than not - on first impression - unfriendly. Nevertheless traveller's experiences will vary and it is never encouraged that anyone gives anywhere a miss.
Comment: I think you provide a wealth of practical info and great advice on your site, but I think some of your reporting on West Africa is a bit irresponsible. In particular, I was very upset by how you categorically slammed Mali, implying that it is good for a quick visit to a few sites and that's all. I appreciate that you at least included one reader comment to the contrary, but I think the entire section needs to be reworked with a more balanced approach. Malians have become some of my best friends and I have been consistently humbled and astonished by their generosity. Also, I am blown away that nothing is said about the music, which is phenomenal in all regions of the country. Lastly, your accommodation section needs to be updated as there are many affordable and comfortable options in Bamako, Mopti, Sevare and Segou.
Highlights: Dogon Country , a boat trip up the Niger (if at the right time of year and with a bit of spare cash to pay for some luxury) and the market at Djenne plus the town itself. Being able to at least say you were there even if you didn't get to Timbuktu. A remarkable way of life - the sights, sound and smells. Festivals: sur le Niger at Segou and Essakane and the Festival au Desert in Timbuktu.
Lowlights: Bamako, transport, poverty, a bad Dogon guide, crowds at peak time in Dogon country, the heat (especially when trekking), hassle and touts. Political instability and security in far North.
The third option is a private car which are
offered at every turn. These are pricey even when shared, but
the most comfortable way to get around. Refuse payment unless
the driver drives with at least some idea of safety, as road
accidents are common. Most travellers will need a private car to
get at least back from Dogon country, thus adding to the price
of such a trip. The same goes with Timbuktu using a bush/private
Trekking in Dogon County is a serious
highlight of West Africa and fascinating glance into a culture
most of us can only imagine. Remember three things. Firstly, it
will only be a glance, secondly you will do limited 'trekking'
due to the heat and thirdly Dogon Country has become a bit of a
theme or ethnic safari park particularly during the Christmas
One reader adds: 'make sure before
you set off you know where you are going. Discuss the actual
route very well with your guide. The trek can be a little
tough with the climbing, and you may want to discuss how far
you want to walk and if you have any experience in hill
climbing/walking. Through some misunderstanding you could find
yourselves walking tougher routes, the guide is used to
walking in the hills, climbing over rocks, but you may not be.
Check out beforehand, because there are no telephones etc, so
you cannot change your pick-up point. Ask the guide to draw
you a small map, so you get an idea of where you're going.'
Money: You will find few ATMs. Travellers cheques will change in Bamako and Mopti, but with poor rates and a lot of hassle. Take Euros or CFA in cash
Locals: There was a comment here and a very generalised one at that, saying something to the effect that Malians are among the most unfriendly people on the continent. This is an impression that some do come away with, but many have got in touch with opinions to the contrary. However consider Ghanaians as a comparison. One comment reads as such 'You also make it clear on the first page (although you do set yourself up as an authority) that yours is a subjective viewpoint on travel. There is however one point I would like to make about your West Africa section, in particular, Mali. I spent 2 months in Mali and thought it was terrific. The people I thought were great, and very friendly. I do not speak fantastic French, so communication was sometimes hard, leaving open opportunities for misunderstandings. Many people tried to rip me off. Do you think it's fair to place such a damning conclusion on a whole nation of people? I believe that to maintain the integrity of your site (which I think it has plenty of), you should removing such subjective and personal reviews of a country. I think that everyone is entitled to their own view, however, as you set yourself up as the one in 'the know', you should consider a more broad-minded stance.' - Rebecca L. Stewart, Australia.
Other travellers: Normal crowd of French and Belgium's and several Peace Corp. volunteers taking holidays.
Communications: Internet okay in both Bamako and Mopti, just a little slow.
Guide book: Lonely Planet or Bradt
Toilets!: Mali wins hands down the award of worst toilet facilities in the world. Take a deep breath!
Media: For photos of Mali click here
Books: Old newspapers and news magazines on sale by street vendors in Bamako
TV: French and Malian programming on in some bars hotel receptions.
Food: Poor and expensive food. Don't expect much. Malian food is nearly always couscous and something. Imported products predictable very expensive. At least there is good fish in most parts of the country, but finding a good meal is not that easy. Food on Dogon trek is a welcome surprise as it can be very good if your guide is good.
Vegetarians: A little tough. Omelettes are your best bet. Meat on offer is not exactly appetising anyway. It's not a problem on a Dogon Trek.
Hassle and annoyance factor: A lot of hassle in Bamako and Mopti (Dogon trips), in Timbuktu (camel trips) and in Djenne (tours). 7.5/10. Just maintain you have already been to Timbuktu and done a Dogon trek already from the moment you arrive.
Women alone: Not normally a big problem, but do team up with someone else on a Dogon trip.
Rating: Considering a Dogon Country trek is such an interesting experience 6.5/10, elsewhere 3.5/10. Djenne is the best of the lot, but Timbuktu, Mopti and Bamako can be nothing but a let down. A pinch of salt is needed.
Miss at your peril: Dogon Country - 'Highlight of Independent Travel'
Guide book: Lonely Planet
Typical tourist trail: Dakar to St-Louis. Many will head to the Gambia or Mali from Dakar. Few now get to Ziguinchor and Casamance.
Locals: Wide range - those in cities can be quite intimidating compared to more honest and down-to-earth folk found away from the beaten path. Most Senegalese do seem to want something from you.
Other travellers: Various. Many French
Tourist factor: Ranges between 3/10 to 7/10
Accommodation: Like any West African country accommodation ranges from quite pleasant and pricey in big cities to very basic and cheap in the country. Good accommodation can be hard to find off the beaten track.
Average cost: €25-35 for a nice AC room. Less than €10 for a basic room.
Communications: Internet okay and good value in both Dakar and St-Louis
Reading: International French language newspapers and magazines in major cities
Food: Eating in Senegal is raved about, particularly in Dakar. Many would say eating is better in Ghana (if you like seafood) and all would argue that if you want to eat like a king in Dakar you almost need the budget of one. Good variety of food in Senegal, although to sample the best of it on the cheap you are going to have to be brave enough to get in with the locals and market stalls.
Hassle and annoyance factor: Expect some hassle, particularly in tourist spots. Be careful in Dakar, it can be a dangerous places if tacked incorrectly.
Women alone: Some care needed
All this might conjure up the image so often
portrayed in glossy brochures as a perfect alternative beach
destination to rank with Goa, Dahab or Zanzibar - beaches,
wildlife, friendly faces, exotic surroundings. Whereas The
Gambia does have all of these, you are warned not to confuse it
with the aforementioned destinations, as any one who has been to
neighbouring countries would realise: that even in this English
speaking democratic corner you are still very much in West
Africa. Beaches are not particularly safe to swim off and the
sand is crowded with hustlers - many of whom are infact
extremely nice - but still won't give you much peace. Wildlife
is really bird life and viewed from the muddy river.
Highs & lows:
Highlights: No notable highlights that really stand out – other than a chance to relax and stock up on books, magazine and some food treats. The Gambia is a popular place for voluntary work and those who partake in this (normally organized) would hold this experience highly as it will get them out into villages and meeting real Gambians.
Lowlights: Banjul (the capital and only real major town), transport off the beaten track, having too high expectations, hassle in touristy areas. A visit to the 'Crocodile pool' can see you trip over a huge croc if you are not paying 100% attention – some might rate this as a highlight, others with a nervous disposition - not.
Visa strategy: Visa rules seem a bit sketchy. Citizens of the United Kingdom and other full members of the European Union (EU15), the Commonwealth (so Oz and NZ, but check re: Canada) and other nations with a reciprocal visa abolition agreement with The Gambia do not require a visa. 90 days is standard. However, other nationalities (Americans check) should get a visa in their home country (if possible) or in the region (Dakar, Lagos, Freetown and Guinea Bissau). However, technically you can get a visa on arrival, since the those with 'last minute bookings' will be allowed entry but will be required to submit their passport to the Department of Immigration in Banjul within 48 hours to be issued a proper visa.
Typical tourist trail: The Gambia is not really big enough to have a 'trail'. Along the coast just south of Banjul is where the majority of best beach and accommodation lies. Transport links are good and this is where most travellers stay. Adventurous soles heading to the south of Senegal (Casamance) will head through the southern part of the country where there are some interesting remoter beaches.
Dangers: The Gambia is quite a safe destination by West Africa standards, but you do need to be slightly on your guard at night and aware of all the numerous health risks.
Costs: Cheaper than CFA counties, but still a far cry from being as cheap as Ghana. Your daily costs can be very low, but good (western standard) accommodation and food can put you on a daily budget of around US$30-50. Whereas, rough it and you can third that figure.
Money: ATMs in Banjul and resort beach areas. Most hard currencies change no problem as do travellers cheques
What to buy: The Gambia is the best place to stock up on books in the region. If you need any guide books for onwards travel you can find them in the one excellent bookshop.
Getting around: Bush taxis and shared mini-buses are the main form of transport. In the populated area around Banjul and the beaches, transport is not too much trouble. Out in the sticks it is much more tougher.
Getting to and from Dakar: To get from Dakar to Banjul overland takes a whole day with an early start. The main delay is crossing the Gambia River and the border crossing. Roads in Senegal are pretty good, but getting from Banjul to the border or visa-verse is hard work. To get to Dakar by air is not good value. A ferry service has been started between Banjul and Dakar and back daily. It's about US$20 for foreigners and is great to save an energy draining overland journey. It takes 4 to 6 hours
Continuing on by air: As mentioned getting to Dakar by air is poor value. No flights go direct to Bamako or Mopti in Mali. To fly to Accra is expensive, even more so for a single ticket (around US$300). The best deal is to fly to Freetown which is a great place to visit and relatively quite good value from Banjul. It is worth noting that The Gambia has regular charter flights from Europe particularly the UK and on return trips at certain times of the year (low seasons) prices are great value.
Guide book: Both the Rough Guide and Lonely Planet have Gambia sections in their Senegal or West Africa guides. There is also an all Gambia Bradt guide, which is good if a little out of date and unnecessary.
Locals: Some hassle and guys looking to pick up tourists on the coast. Generally quite friendly if given the time
Other travellers: Very few backpackers. Most youth traveller's are there for voluntary work while many other tourists you will see are on package breaks
Tourist factor: 6/10. Despite being a package destination and having direct charter flight links with Europe, numbers are still low and backpackers are in the serious minority. Like elsewhere in the region, it's very easy to get off the beaten track
Accommodation: Accommodation is pretty limited in Banjul and outside of the coastal area south of the River Gambia. However, in this area there is a good choice
Hot water: Only in better accommodation
Average cost: Difficult to say. Ranging from US$10 to US$40. At the higher end in resort areas with even a swimming pool. At the lower end quite basic
Communications: Internet easy and good value. Post is excellent value and fast/reliable to the UK at least
Books: 'Timbooktu', a book store easily found in Fajara has a great selection of fiction, fact and guidebooks. All English language.
Food: Hard to find good food in Banjul and elsewhere. Along the Atlantic coastal resorts there are plenty of great places to eat
Vegetarians: No problem in Atlantic coastal resorts
Hassle and annoyance factor: 6.5/10
Women alone: Do expect a lot of attention on and around the beaches
Drugs, cigarettes and alcohol: Not much of a scene
The country is also somewhat more developed than elsewhere in the rest of the region. It's not anyway near Western standards but reasonable. Buses run on a schedule, eating out is easy, banks have ATMs, Internet is easy. In fact the balance is about right for many since even though certain western factors are present to make life comfortable you are not going to run into a Mc Donald's or even close. As mentioned transport is fairly easy, frequent, comfortable and cheap - no more bush taxis if you don't want! But what really makes Ghana are two factors. The first being the size and variety of the country. From relatively speaking cosmopolitan Accra to way off the beaten track villages in the North, it seems everywhere you make the effort to visit there is a worthwhile reward.
You won't find a Taj Mahal or other such wonders you might find in a country like India, but compared to the rest of West Africa or even Africa it's a joy.
The second factor that really makes Ghana are the people. If you have read a fair chunk of this site or have been backpacking before you will know that the people factor of travelling is a huge factor in the appeal of going abroad. Not everyone is a joy, but on a whole Ghanaians are perhaps the most friendly, hospitable and welcoming people in the world - even more noticeably so since English is commonly spoken. In fact the whole culture is very soft and you very rarely feel intimidated even in the great poverty that you encounter as a matter of fact each and everyday. Strong (even fanatical) Christian beliefs are clearly evident thought-out the country and this love thy neighbour philosophy probably plays a large part in this, but who is to say.
In a nutshell Ghana is everything you expect, well I expected West Africa to be (Sahara and Dogon villages aside), with a huge variety, plenty to explore and few tourists. It's easy to spend a month or two if you wished - certainly the highlight of the region and although it has some limitations as a destination it comes highly recommended.
Highs & lows:
Highlights: There are limited places that really jump out as major highlights apart from the value of travelling and people. Getting off the beaten track is perhaps the biggest highlight. It's quite easy and there is plenty to see such as beaches and forgotten forts in the south-west, lake Volta or the villages around Kumasi.
Lowlights: Distances are still quite large and transport is not always comfortable/practical. Mole National park is easy to get to by West Africa standards, not general standards and the extent of wildlife you see will depend on the time of year and your luck. If you have been to East Africa you might be disappointed.
Visa strategy: Virtually everyone will need a visa and have to obtain it before arriving. Cost is about US$30 for single entry and US$50 for double entry (but embassies in developed countries will likely charge more). Visas can be easily obtained in Ouagadougou and elsewhere in the region (note reports a Ghana visa in Côte d'Ivoire can be problematic). For some reason you will need four photos.
Typical tourist trail: A triangle around Accra, Kumasi and Cape Coast/Takoradi
Dangers: As anywhere else in tropical Africa there are many nasty things you can catch including malaria, but from a safety situation Ghana is relatively very safe. Nevertheless always take local advice and err on the side of caution when walking through remote areas, swimming (since aside from Bilharzia, there are strong tidal currents) and walking alone after dark in quiet, unlit places.
Costs: Easy to get by on US$20. Double this and you can travel very well by backpacker standards with AC in rooms and eating and drinking like a king or queen
Money: ATMs can be found in any major town and cash/travellers cheques change quite easily. Best to stick with ATMs which are really quite plentiful. The only point of note is that the Cedi comes in fairly low denomination notes and that the largest ATM withdrawal you can make is pretty low and is a fair wad of cash. For two people you might end up standing at the ATM making withdrawal after withdrawal before heading somewhere more remote.
What to buy: Some good cheap crafts if Ghana is your last stop
Getting around: Getting around Ghana is much easier than getting around the rest of West Africa. There is a pretty good state run bus service and private buses. On shorter hops, or for sometimes faster times you can use bush taxis (quite rare) or bush mini buses (much more common). These are handy, leave regularly, don't often rip you off and are not that crowded.
Locals: It's not to say that everyone you will meet will have the sun shining out of every orifice, but Ghanaians are on the whole very friendly, gentle and understanding. A real highlight of any trip.
Other travellers: mainly from the USA (Peace Core) or British. Some Dutch and other Europeans. Not many tourists (compared to say Asia), most travellers you meet on the road will be doing some kind of voluntary work.
Tourist factor: There are notably many backpackers by West African standards, which is something you seldom notice in West Africa outside Mopti and Dogon Country in Mali, but it's easy to get away from the beaten track and the number of tourists are still very low compared to anyway in Asia or the Americas
Accommodation: Accommodation ranges greatly from a good standard in bigger towns to quite basic off the beaten track. Mid-range accommodation is quite cheap about US$15-30. Basic accommodation is even cheaper, but of a poor standard and difficult to bear in the heat. If you wish to spend more than US$10-15 the jump up is quite large. In larger cities hotels aimed at business folk can be a great deal with AC, hot water and sometimes a TV.
Hot water: With rooms at the cheaper end, don't expect hot water, but if you want it paying a little extra it will not be a problem for even the most shoestring travellers
Average cost: Around US$15
Communications: Internet and phone easy to find and use. Internet cheap, calls abroad more expensive
Books: Easy to find a good range of books in Accra, much harder outside of the capital
TV: Ghanaian national TV is hardly stimulating, but you will find cable TV in good Accra hotels
Food: Food is fantastic, from basic Africa street food you can find for next to nothing, ranging to great seafood restaurants or local fishermen cooking you their catches in beach shacks. If you like fish and seafood you will be in heaven.
Hassle and annoyance factor: Only a little hassle in towns like Cape Coast, but pretty low key.
Women alone: As with all countries there are guys who will be looking to pick you up at beach areas, but as a woman alone you are pretty safe. Really more of an annoyance than a hassle, you may find that even with a male partner local men may take it on themselves to touch you - just don't take any shit and make sure you let them know this is not appropriate behaviours and you or any other tourist is not going to stand for it. When confronted most men are quite shy about having touched you. It's normally only brushing your arm rather than anything sinister, but it's not something they would do to a local girls (nor would they tolerate it).
Drugs, cigarettes and alcohol: Great cheap beer, grass is available, but there is no real scene
Miss at your peril: Some of the friendliest easy going people in the world - 'Highlight of Independent Travel'
Remember, this is only a take (an overview if you will); very few get the chance to see every inch of every country or have the time to get everyone's opinion (you are welcome and encouraged to mail in yours). Please, please if you have been anywhere recently send your comments to contribute and help keep all information fresh for future travellers. Or if you are about to head off remember this site when you return and put a few lines in an e-mail to let us know if things have changed.
"The darkest thing about Africa has always been our
ignorance of it."